In the last decades, multiple fungal species have emerged, posing threats to public health.
1In this journal, we have reported the emergence of Candida auris in South America.
- Lockhart S.R.
- Guarner J.
Emerging and reemerging fungal infections.
Semin Diagn Pathol. 2019; 36: 177-181https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2019.04.010
2Sporothrix brasiliensis constitutes another emerging fungal threat on the continent. This dimorphic fungus is the causative agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, and its first appearance was retrospectively identified in 1998 in Rio de Janeiro.
- Calvo B.
- Melo A.S.
- Perozo-Mena A.
- Hernandez M.
- Francisco E.C.
- Hagen F.
- et al.
First report of Candida auris in America: clinical and microbiological aspects of 18 episodes of candidemia.
J Infect. 2016; 73: 369-374https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2016.07.008
3Since then, there has been a staggering increase in the number of feline and human cases in various Brazilian States.
- Gremiao I.D.
- Miranda L.H.
- Reis E.G.
- Rodrigues A.M.
- Pereira S.A.
Zoonotic epidemic of sporotrichosis: cat to human transmission.
PLoS Pathog. 2017; 13e1006077https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006077
4Recently, it was also found in the South American countries Argentina, Paraguay, and Chile,
- de Carvalho J.A.
- Beale M.A.
- Hagen F.
- Fisher M.C.
- Kano R.
- Bonifaz A.
- et al.
Trends in the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of emerging Sporothrix species.
Stud Mycol. 2021; 100100129https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2021.100129
- Etchecopaz A.
- Toscanini M.A.
- Gisbert A.
- Mas J.
- Scarpa M.
- Iovannitti C.A.
- et al.
Sporothrix brasiliensis: a review of an emerging South American fungal pathogen, its related disease, presentation and spread in Argentina.
J Fungi. 2021; 7: 170https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7030170
6while also three cases were reported in London that were linked to a domestic cat originally hailed from Brazil.
- Thomson P.
- González C.
- Blank O.
- Ramírez V.
- del Río C.
- Santibáñez S.
- et al.
Sporotrichosis outbreak due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in domestic cats in Magallanes, Chile: a one-health-approach study.
J Fungi. 2023; 9: 226https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020226
7This worrying trend highlights the potential of S. brasiliensis to spread globally and the necessity to trace the emergence of this fungus.
- Barnacle J.R.
- Chow Y.J.
- Borman A.M.
- Wyllie S.
- Dominguez V.
- Russell K.
- et al.
The first three reported cases of Sporothrix brasiliensis cat-transmitted sporotrichosis outside South America.
Med Mycol Case Rep. 2023; 39: 14-17https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2022.12.004
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- Emerging and reemerging fungal infections.Semin Diagn Pathol. 2019; 36: 177-181https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2019.04.010
- First report of Candida auris in America: clinical and microbiological aspects of 18 episodes of candidemia.J Infect. 2016; 73: 369-374https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2016.07.008
- Zoonotic epidemic of sporotrichosis: cat to human transmission.PLoS Pathog. 2017; 13e1006077https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006077
- Trends in the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of emerging Sporothrix species.Stud Mycol. 2021; 100100129https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2021.100129
- Sporothrix brasiliensis: a review of an emerging South American fungal pathogen, its related disease, presentation and spread in Argentina.J Fungi. 2021; 7: 170https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7030170
- Sporotrichosis outbreak due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in domestic cats in Magallanes, Chile: a one-health-approach study.J Fungi. 2023; 9: 226https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9020226
- The first three reported cases of Sporothrix brasiliensis cat-transmitted sporotrichosis outside South America.Med Mycol Case Rep. 2023; 39: 14-17https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2022.12.004
- Emerging sporotrichosis is driven by clonal and recombinant Sporothrix species.Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014; 3e32https://doi.org/10.1038/emi.2014.33
- Current progress on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sporotrichosis and their future trends.J Fungi. 2022; 8https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8080776
- A novel Sporothrix brasiliensis genomic variant in Midwestern Brazil: evidence for an older and wider sporotrichosis epidemic.Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020; 9: 2515-2525https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1847001
Published online: February 23, 2023
Accepted: February 20, 2023
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
☆Bram Spruijtenburg and Amanda Bombassaro contributed equally to this work.
© 2023 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.