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Changes of Escherichia coli infection in children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Zhengzhou, China

Published:November 24, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2022.11.017
      Dear editor:
      Li, Zhou et al 1.2successively reported on this magazine about the changes in the infection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Henan Province of China. The results all showed that the morbidity of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in children during the COVID-19 pandemic was declining. French
      • Lemenand O
      • Coeffic T
      • Thibaut S
      • M Colomb Cotinat
      • Caillon J
      Birgand G.Clinical Laboratories of PRIMO Network. Nantes, France. Decreasing proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among E. coli infections during the COVID-19 pandemic in France.
      .
      • Duverger C
      • Monteil C
      • Souyri V
      • Fournier S.
      AP-HP Infection prevention and control teams. Decrease of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae incidence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
      also reported that the incidence of E.coli-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was declining during the COVID-19 pandemic in France. Up to now, there is no report on the incidence of E. coli in respiratory and digestive system of children.
      E.coli is a normal inhabitant of human intestinal tract and a common pathogen of digestive system. Under certain conditions, it can cause extraintestinal infection.COVID-19 pneumonia is a new respiratory infectious disease, which is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and close contact.After the outbreak of COVID-19, a series of response measures are mainly to block the path of respiratory transmission, Here we introduce the overall incidence of E.coli and the incidence of respiratory and digestive system infections in children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zhengzhou, China.
      The Affiliated Children's Hospital of Zhengzhou University is a 3A pediatric hospital.It has been approved as the National Children's Regional Medical Center, Henan Children's Medical Center, and Henan Pediatric Disease Clinical Medical Research Center. and has been included by the state as a pilot hospital for the establishment and completion of modern hospital management system.The hospital has 4 branches,which are Zhengdong branch, Dongsanjie branch, South Zone branch, and West Zone branch, scattered in Zhengzhou. The hospital Continuous monitors Escherichia coli infection in children.The subjects of this study were children aged 0-16 years, and the test samples were sputum, blood, urine, secretions, effusion, etc. In this study, we only compared the total number of positive cases of children before and after the epidemic (2018-2021, 48 months in total), as well as the number of positive cases of respiratory system and digestive system, because the number of children in Zhengzhou is relatively stable in recent years, we also analyzed the correlation between the total number of positive cases, the number of respiratory system positive cases and the number of digestive system positive cases.
      The research results show (fig 1-fig 2) that the total positive cases of E.coli showed a downward trend among children during the epidemic period, in Zhengzhou, China, as well as the respiratory system. However, the fluctuation of the both cases during the epidemic period is greater than before the epidemic, which is related to the change of epidemic control situation and epidemic prevention and control policies in the region
      • Li Y
      • Guo Y
      • Duan Y.
      Changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Zhengzhou.
      .
      • Zhou J
      • Zhao P
      • Nie M
      • Gao K
      • Yang J.
      Changes of Haemophilus influenzae infection in children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, Henan.
      . While the number of positive cases of digestive system has not changed significantly before and after the epidemic. Correlation analysis showed that the number of positive cases of respiratory system was positively correlated with the total number of positive cases before and after the epidemic(r=0.916, P=0.000), while the number of positive cases of digestive system was not correlated with the total number of positive cases and the number of respiratory system positive cases (r=0.149, P=0.311, r=-0.130, P=0.378). The above results indicate that the COVID-19 may affect the incidence of E. coli, but it may mainly affect the incidence of respiratory system infection, and has little impact on the incidence of digestive system infection. Previous report
      • Lemenand O
      • Coeffic T
      • Thibaut S
      • M Colomb Cotinat
      • Caillon J
      Birgand G.Clinical Laboratories of PRIMO Network. Nantes, France. Decreasing proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among E. coli infections during the COVID-19 pandemic in France.
      has shown that it has an impact on urinary system infection. This study did not make statistics on the incidence of urinary system due to the small number of positive urine samples. The impact of the epidemic on human infectious diseases needs further study.
      Fig 1
      Fig. 1The general trend of infection during 2018-2021.
      Fig 2
      Fig. 2The changes in the number of Escherichia coli infections in the total positive cases, respiratory systems cases and digestive systems cases at different times.
      According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine of Wholism and the theory that man is an integral part of nature, the outbreak of the COVID-19 was not an accident, but caused by human activities, environmental pollution, climate change and other factors that broke the original balance of nature. all things in the world have been spared in this epidemic,and it showed. After the outbreak of the COVID-19, countries around the world have implemented a series of strong control measures and enhanced personal protection awareness,effectively block the spread of the virus. At present, the COVID-19 continues to break out in some areas. With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, it continues to affect people's way of live, travel, study, work, etc.,as well as the microbial community, especially to pathogens of epidemiology, etc. A series of research results
      • Li Y
      • Guo Y
      • Duan Y.
      Changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Zhengzhou.
      • Zhou J
      • Zhao P
      • Nie M
      • Gao K
      • Yang J.
      Changes of Haemophilus influenzae infection in children before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, Henan.
      • Lemenand O
      • Coeffic T
      • Thibaut S
      • M Colomb Cotinat
      • Caillon J
      Birgand G.Clinical Laboratories of PRIMO Network. Nantes, France. Decreasing proportion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among E. coli infections during the COVID-19 pandemic in France.
      • Duverger C
      • Monteil C
      • Souyri V
      • Fournier S.
      AP-HP Infection prevention and control teams. Decrease of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae incidence during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
      • Chow EJ
      • Uyeki TM
      • Chu HY.
      The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on community respiratory virus activity.
      • Garg IG
      • Shekhar R
      • Sheikh AB
      • Pal S.
      Impact of COVID-19 on the Changing Patterns of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections.
      • Mohebi L
      • Karami H
      • Mirsalehi N
      • Ardestani NH
      • Yavarian J
      • et al.
      A delayed resurgence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during the COVID-19 pandemic: An unpredictable outbreak in a small proportion of children in the Southwest of Iran, April 2022.
      • Zheng Z
      • Pitzer VE
      • Shapiro ED
      • Bont LJ
      • Weinberger DM.
      Estimation of the Timing and Intensity of Reemergence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Following the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US.
      show that the COVID-19 pandemic has also changed the epidemiology of a variety of pathogens, especially respiratory pathogens. Dynamic and continuous detection of changes in the microbial community, especially pathogens, is particularly important for our human health and survival, which requires the cooperation and efforts of many regions, centers and institutions around the world.

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