- •Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
- •Smoking is linked to meningococcal carriage and passive smoking to IMD in children.
- •We conducted a systematic review searching multiple electronic databases.
- •Active and passive smoking may be associated with IMD in adolescents and young adults.
- •Smoking cessation may reduce transmission and disease incidence in all age groups.
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