- •Influenza-like illness (ILI) in children is associated with high pneumococcal carriage density.
- •Children with ILI harboured more viral organisms than asymptomatic healthy children.
- •Children with ILI patients had higher IL-8 levels in nasal aspirates than asymptomatic healthy children.
- Moreno A.T.
- Oliveira M.L.S.
- Ho P.L.
- Vadesilho C.F.M.
- Palma G.M.P.
- Ferreira J.M.C.
- et al.
Study design and participants
Streptococcus pneumoniae culture and lytA PCR
Multiplex real-time PCR detection of 33 respiratory microbes
Demographic characteristics of study population
|Variable||All participants |
(n = 47)
(n = 21)
(n = 26)
|Age, years, median (IQR)|
3 (2 – 6)
5 (2 – 6)
2 (1 – 4)
|1–<5||31||10 (47.6)||21 (80.8)||0.029|
|≥5–10||16||11 (52.4)||5 (19.2)|
|Female||29 (61.7)||15 (71.4)||14 (53.8)|
|Yes||33 (70.2)||11 (52.4)||22 (84.6)|
ILI patients exhibit increased propensity for harbouring a viral organism and/or multiple microbes in nasal aspirates
ILI patients harbour higher levels of pro-inflammatory IL-8 in the URT than asymptomatic healthy controls
ILI patients exhibit higher likelihood of greater pneumococcal carriage densities than asymptomatic healthy controls
|Culture Positive||Culture Negative||Total||Diagnostic accuracy|
0.9310 (95% CI 0.7804 – 0.9877)
Positive predictive value
0.8710 (95% CI 0.7115 – 0.9487)
0.7647 (95% CI 0.5274 – 0.9044)
Negative predictive value
0.8667 (95% CI 0.6212 – 0.9763)
|Total||29 (63.0%)||17 (37.0%)||46 (100%)|
- Troeger C.
- Forouzanfar M.
- Rao P.C.
- Khalil I.
- Brown A.
- Swartz S.
- et al.
Declaration of Competing Interest
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