Anti-Septicaemic Effect of Polysaccharide from Panax ginseng by Macrophage Activation

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      The aim of the present research was conducted to elucidate anti-septicaemic effect of a polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) by nitric oxide production from stimulated macrophage. In vitro assays for the activity measurement of PS, NO production test with Greiss reagent, phagocytic activity test using zymosan and cytokines production test using ELISA kit were also conducted. In vivo anti-septicaemic activity was assessed by using C57BL/6J mice. This was done with Staphylococcus aureus infection test. PS used at 0.025 mg/kg concentration showed a potent anti-septicaemic activity (80%, survival). However, it did not directly inhibit S. aureus in a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, conducted in vitro (data not shown). Nitric oxide production via macrophage activation showed the highest value of 5.5 nmol/ml at 1 μg/ml PS. In in vitro phagocytic activity test, PS at 10 μg/ml concentration showed a potent phagocytic activity for zymosan with 167% of the control. Production of TNF-α by macrophage activation at 10 μg/ml of PS was 96% lysis of L929. Also production of IL-1 and IL-6 by stimulation of macrophage with 100 μg/ml PS dose increased to 235 pg/ml and 0.47 ng/ml, respectively. The low mortality of PS treated (0.025 mg/kg) infected mice was concurrent with decreased bacterial content in the blood. Nitric oxide production in S. aureus infected mice whose macrophage was stimulated by PS (0.025 mg/kg) increased approximately 4 times than the untreated S. aureus infected group at 24 and 48 h incubation. In the PS treated (0.025 mg/kg) group, the intracellular concentration of S. aureus in macrophages decreased approximately by 50%, compared with the untreated group. Combine treatment with PS (0.025 mg/kg body weight) and vancomycin (10 mg/kg B.W.) resulted in 100% survival of the animals, whereas only 67% or 50% of the animals survived, respectively, when treated with PS or vancomycin alone. These results suggest that PS from Panax ginseng possess a potent anti-septicaemic activity by stimulating macrophage and a potentiality as an immunomodulator against sepsis occurred byStaphylococcus aureus .
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